A traditional samurai sword, known as a katana, is meticulously crafted through a process called "tamahagane." It begins with the smelting of iron sand, extracting high-carbon steel, which is then folded repeatedly to remove impurities and create a blade with a distinct grain pattern. The blade is shaped, quenched in water or oil for hardening, and tempered to achieve the right balance of hardness and flexibility. The tang (nakago) is attached, and the sword is polished to a razor-sharp edge. The hilt (tsuka) and scabbard (saya) are meticulously crafted, completing the sword. This labor-intensive process demands the expertise of skilled artisans, resulting in a weapon revered for its beauty, craftsmanship, and deadly effectiveness.